Sunday, May 24, 2020

Factors That Impact Teacher Effectiveness - 2221 Words

Jacqueline Adams Dickey 03/11/14 EDUC 661 Literature Review The increasing focus by many policymakers and measurement experts on using statistical models to evaluate teacher effectiveness has led to heightened debate regarding the usefulness of these methods but little discussion of the possible sources of error inherent in value-added modeling. Even the most robust models for making high-stakes decisions about teacher effectiveness contain numerous sources of error that can lead to ill-founded interpretations of the data. Both teachers and schools can be negatively impacted by the errant use of value-added modeling; increased awareness of possible limiting factors present in these models is needed, both at the policymaker and at the†¦show more content†¦As of 2013, 43 states measure teacher effectiveness, at least in part, through student achievement; 25 of these states are in the process of instituting entire teacher evaluation systems that rely on student growth data to measure teacher impact (National Council on Teacher Quality, 2013). Within the larger classification of student growth measures is value-added modeling (VAM), a method that uses a statistical model to establish a causal link between teachers and the achievement of students within their classroom. VAMs are considered promising because, in a perfect world, they might have the potential to promote education reform and to create a more equitable accountability system holding teachers and schools accountable for the aspects of student learning that are attributable to effective teaching without burdening teachers and schools with responsibility for factors outside of their control. Value-added models are being used to evaluate teacher effectiveness in districts across the country, including New York City and Washington, D.C. Opinion on their potential for misuse and misinterpretation has been split, with some arguing that VAMs are inherently imprecise and ill-suited to measuring teacher effectiveness (Rothstein, 2008; Baker et al., 2010), while others posit that the possibilities for error are minimal (Kane and

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Elements of Proving Negligence Free Essay Example, 750 words

It is evidently clear from the discussion that the four elements of proof necessary for a plaintiff to prove negligence include the duty of care, breach of duty, injury, and proximate cause. Health care providers are charged with a duty to care for the patient(s) based on an established relationship between the patient and the care provider. However, the healthcare provider is not liable for any person who is not regarded as a patient in the capacity of the provider. The provider is expected to act in full capacity in ensuring that the patient s care needs are met, failure to which negligence may result. Breach of duty is realized when the care provider fails to meet predetermined care standards or even deviates from a commonly known competent professionalism. This malpractice is in most cases realized from hazards and /or risks associated with a given medical procedure. To avoid this malpractice, care providers often ensure that they make use of informed consents before performing medical procedures that are highly likely to result in a breach of duty. Failure to undertake care duty towards a patient by a care provider could also result in negligence. We will write a custom essay sample on Elements of Proving Negligence or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/page This complexity is caused by health care regulations, especially by the government. The functions and responsibilities of the governing board of a health care corporation include establishing corporation direction, ensuring that the corporation complies with the set regulations, addressing shareholder interests, providing advice and expertise to the corporation management, and ensuring that the long-term vision of the corporation is pursued.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

John Deer Case Study - 1238 Words

Mohamud Hassan DSC434 John Deere case study Due date 11/11/14 Early Supplier Integration in the Design of the Skid-Steer Loader Scott has been offered a new position as supply management manager for a new Deere amp; Company manufacturing facility of designed product skid-steer loader. As part of his new job, he must make a proposal to identify specific suppliers to integrate into skid-steer loader development process and specific ways to effectively integrate these suppliers in order to meet aggressive target costs. Scott faced many problems during his time at Deer and Company. For example, Scott is required to produce a proposal that outlines how the company is going to manage the early supplier integration into the design†¦show more content†¦Areas to focus | Not Important | Very Important | Product feature | 0 | 5 | Product range | 1 | 4 | Product delivery | 0 | 5 | Price | 1 | 5 | Not important =0 Very important = 5 It is very important the company focuses on the product features such as fuel efficiency, improve mechanical, and tires. Improving product features will help the company grow and produce quality products. The solution of the second problem that Deere amp; John is facing about market access strategy may not work smoothly as its excesses capacity because Scott was given for 24 months to run the entire facility fully operational. Also this will be very difficult for Scott and his company because the time frame that was given is short so that The reason of implementing supplier integration in the design and fabricating processes for Deere amp; John is to move towards a new business model to stay competitive in the increasing global competition. The other solution of the third problem is why the company needs to decide and find appropriate suppliers in different product? Deer amp; John planned to make their own facility and start producing their own product. The company wants to take back design and manufacturing of skid steer loader from the company whoShow MoreRelatedHunting Should Not Be Banned1499 Words   |  6 Pagesstrictly regulated hunting we have reintroduced and repopulated various game species into areas where they were previously wiped out due to extremely excessive hunting by settlers. In the early 1900s all of Indiana’s whitetail deer were virtually extinct. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Case Study Of Nike and Kentucky Fried Chicken †Free Samples

Question: Discuss about the Case Study Of Nike and Kentucky Fried Chicken. Answer: Introduction The global commercial scenario has experienced considerable dynamics and changes in their operational framework with time. Over the year, with events like Globalization, liberalization of industrial sectors of different countries and with more and more businesses increasing their operational domain internationally, the ways of doing businesses have also changes considerably (Wild, Wild and Han 2014). Businesses no longer only involve the demand and supply side players but also have implications on the overall economic and social conditions of the countries. With the increasing expansion of the businesses in different domains, social responsibilities of the businesses across the globe have also increased. This in turn has incorporated the notion of ethics in the operational framework of business. The demand for moral and ethical behavior to be incorporated in the aspects of business communications, domestic as well as international, in order to increase the welfare of not only those who are directly involved in these communications but also of those who are indirectly affected, has encouraged the development of the concept of business ethics (Trevino and Nelson 2016). The field of business ethics addresses the morality, responsibility and sensibility in the actions taken by the businesses in order to ensure that to achieve their primary priority of profit maximization the companies do not hamper the well being of any individual or of the society as a whole. Often in their operations and corporate decision-makings, the companies face situations of ethical dilemmas, which involve difficult choices between economic profits and social performances of the commercial companies. The economic profits involve the revenue and benefits of the company itself. However, the social performances involve the measurement of the obligations of the companies to the people and societies as a whole (Moore 2012). Considering this, the concerned essay tries to analyze two real cases of corporate ethical dilemmas and wrongdoings, involving two multinational giants, the reputed sports wears and accessories, Nike and the globally reputed food chain of Kentucky Fried Chicken, in the light of the theories existing in the domain of business ethics (Bazerman and Gino 2012). Discussing the ethical dilemmas and wrongdoings on parts of the decision makers, the implications and influences of the stakeholders and also the behaviors of the companies the essay also tries to recommend the correct behavior for the same and tries to justify the same in the light of the business ethics framework. Case Study 1- Nike As discussed above, Nike is one of the predominant multinational companies operating in the domain of design and manufacturing of apparel, sports accessories, footwear and equipments. With its origin in the United States of America and with headquarter near Oregon; the company has its sales in all the corners of the world. The company has average annual revenue of nearly 34 billion USD and employs nearly 75,000 employees across the world (Nike.com, 2018). With huge penetration in the sports accessories and apparel markets worldwide and with many high profile celebrities endorsing the brand, Nike is a known name among the global population in the contemporary period. However, in the last few years, the company has faced huge accusations and backlashes for allegedly running sweatshops in different developing countries. In other words, the company has been accused for shifting a major part of its production process in the developing and poorly developed countries, where they are accused of employing people at visibly low wages and in poor working conditions (Crane, Matten and Spence 2013). The company has also been accused of employing child labor in these countries and compelling their workers to work in environment detrimental to their health, which is considered as one of the greatest offense and breach in the corporate ethical framework. The problem, which Nike has been facing in this respect, indicates towards the emergence of ethical dilemma on part of the decision makers of the organization, which is elaborated in the following section. Problem areas The primary areas of concern in the operational framework of the company includes the presence of evidences of the company outsourcing their productions to the developing countries and not providing proper work environments to the domestic work force employed by them. Nike, in their factories provided work conditions to the workers, which were not at all as per the norms prevalent in the developed countries (Hopkins 2016). For instance, in some of the factories of the company in Korea and some other underdeveloped countries, the labors were made to work daily for seventeen hours, which is terribly above the conventional work hours. Apart from such labor hours and poor conditions, the wages provided to these labors by the company had been severely low and sometimes even lower than the amount needed for basic sustenance of their needs. These indicate towards the presence of immense exploitations of the cheap labors in the developing countries by such a reputed and multinational brand ( Zhakypova 2017). Another aspect in which the company has gained immense negative popularity is that they have always maintained steep prices of their products and has continuously engaged in promoting their products by getting high profile celebrities as the face of their company. These faces include celebrities like Tiger Woods and Michael Jordan, with the company spending millions of dollars for the promotional activities. Many on the other hand have highlighted these lavish expenses on the promotional activities on one hand and terribly low wages and poor working conditions for the employees and the company has earned huge criticisms around the world in the aspects of human rights (Nisen 2013). The issue of employing child labor in the countries with restrictions against employee unions was a deliberate strategy taken by the company, knowing that there would be fewer chances of agitations and strikes among the workers in those countries. The poor working conditions and lack of protections for the workers in the factories also led to many instances of breathing problems and skin problems among the workers, which is a huge violation of the basic human rights of the workers, on part of the multinational company, spending millions on advertisements and earning billions from their luxury products (James). Ethics: Theoretical Framework The actions and operations of Nike can be discussed in the light of the different theories existing in business ethics framework. Of these, the first theory is regarding the perspective of the social group. According to this concept, the decisions of someone or an organization do not solely depend on the same only but also depend on the social group in which he resides or to whom the same is answerable (Hartman, DesJardins and MacDonald 2014). In case of Nike, the social group can be considered as the employees, shareholders, consumers and different supply side contractors. These people living in different parts of the world, their perceptions of right and wrongdoing are also found to be different. For instance the wage paid by Nike to the employees in Korea may seem considerably low when measured from the perspective of the USA, but the cost of living of the former is also visibly low compared to the latter. The profit maximizing and rigorous expanding strategies of Nike can be explained with the help of the Egoism Theory in ethics, which states that the organizations or any individual have the right to place their own interests as the foremost priority in their rational decisions. Nike did the same, in order to ensure high revenues such that the money could be used for their further expansion of businesses and for venturing in other unexplored markets of the world (DesJardins and McCall 2014). This, though having negative implications on the workers to a considerable extent and on the reputation of the company in the eyes of human rights activists, however, helped the company to become one of the biggest multinational companies in the international scenario. Ethical Dilemmas The company, in its operations has faced several serious dilemmas and also have in some instances engaged in wrongdoings from the ethical perspectives which need to be highlighted. The first ethical dilemma faced by the company has been on the aspect of outsourcing their manufacturing activities to the developed countries. This has helped the company to maintain a high profit margin and also contributed positively in creating employment scopes in those labor rich but economic growth lacking countries (Reuter, Goebel and Foerstl 2012). However, in doing this, the company is held responsible for taking away considerable scopes of employment from its home countries and the company has also been accused of exploiting the cheap labors in the low developed countries by paying them sub standard wages and providing them with work environments much inferior than the conventional norms of the developed world. Another ethical dilemma faced by the company has been that of the tradeoff between huge expenses in the promotional activities and usage of the same money for the skill development of the employees and their overall welfare. While the former is expected to contribute in making the company globally popular, thereby increasing their sales and revenues, the latter is expected to create a healthy and motivated workforce for the company and in increasing the goodwill of the same in the eyes of the societies. Nike however chose to stick to the former, thereby letting go the opportunity to contribute to the humane aspects of the countries where they have established their manufacturing units (Daniel 2013). Recommendations The company has taken several steps in order to address the ethical issues cropping up in its operational framework, especially after these issues got global media attentions, which led to destruction of the goodwill and reputation of the company considerably in the international scenario. The company has already taken amending measures so as to come out of the accusations of running sweatshops in the under developed countries taking the privilege of their deprivations and less awareness in general (McMurrian and Matulich 2016). However, there are still several aspects which the company needs to emphasize upon. In this context, the theory of Utilitarianism can be referred to, which works under the notion that the greatest good is that good which is for the greatest number. Taking this aspect of ethical consideration into account, the company needs to invest more on the social and humane grounds of empowering their employees, not superficially, but in all the aspects of their life (Pullen 2016). Nike needs to concentrate more on building an inclusive corporate culture within the company itself to clarify its values; in order to bring more respect for all the cultural and ethnological diversities the company has in its workforce, in order to manage their operations efficiently and more ethically in future. Case Study 2- Kentucky Fried Chicken Like that of Nike, the Kentucky Fried Chicken is one of the leading fast food chains, having its origin in the USA and enjoying a worldwide operational domain and sales of their product, especially different varieties of fried chicken for which the company is internationally known. The company, having its headquarters in Louisville, Kentucky, currently enjoys the second position in terms of food chains, just after McDonalds and has its outlets in almost 20,000 locations across more than 123 countries in the globe. It also creates employment for thousands of people in these locations and the company enjoys average revenue of nearly 23 billion USD (Online.kfc.co.in, 2018). However, in spite of its immense popularity among the global population, especially the children, the young age clusters, and its increasing sales across different countries of the world, there have been several serious ethical issues, which the company has been facing in the last few years, which have also led to considerable criticisms of the company (Trevino and Nelson 2016). The primary criticisms of the company regarding its ethical wrongdoings have been based on the accusations against the company for allegedly using unhealthy ingredients and products to make their fried chickens (Sheehan 2013). On one hand, evidences have been found against KFC, of using oil containing Trans fat and on the other hand the company has also been accused of cruel chicken farming and of using unnatural methods like injections and chemicals on the chickens to increase the cost efficiency of their production process. Problem Areas One of the primary problem areas in the ethical framework of the company is the usage of oil containing trans fat in most of the products made and sold by the company in all parts of the world. This becomes even a bigger issue in the contemporary period, with more and more people realizing the negative effects of unhealthy eating and adapting to healthier lifestyles. Apart from oil, the other ingredients used by the company to make their products tasty and more appealing in the eyes of the youth, also contains substances which are not considered to be healthy in conventional standards (Sebastiani, Montagnini and Dalli 2013). However, KFC, in none of its promotions or advertisements has mentioned about the type of oil they use or the ingredients, which they add. In addition, the calorie content of their products and the negative implications, which they can bring on the consumers, especially the children, are not mentioned by KFC in any of their promotional activities. Apart from the above-mentioned problem, the company has also been accused of unethical handling of the animal resources, which is one of the serious offenses in the business ethics framework globally. The chicken suppliers of the company have been accused multiple times of keeping chickens in poor conditions and overcrowded cages. They have also been accused of using unfair means like drugs and chemicals to make the chickens heavier in order to increase the cost efficiency (Lawless 2013). The multinational company has also supported these activities in order to increase the revenues and profits considerably. The company has also been accused of keeping this information hidden from their clientele, which indicates towards severe negligence on part of the company in terms of the health and welfare of the customers. Ethics: Theoretical Framework The unfair means adopted by KFC can be considered extremely unethical from all the perspectives of the ethical framework existing in the contemporary business scenarios in the world, as it is involved direct adverse implications on the consumers, which also includes elderly people, women, children and youth. Their actions can be to somewhat explained from the Egoism perspective only. This perspective highlights the presence of rights in the hands of individuals or the organizations to take decisions keeping in front their own benefit first. However, the Egoism theory does not validate the activities of hampering the welfare of other people in order to increase its own benefits, which have been done by the company over the years (Jenning 2014). Ethical Wrongdoing The ethical dilemma, which the company faced and which led to the wrongdoing on part of the company, has been due to the tradeoff between the economic profits, competition and social reputation, which the company has been subjected to. With other food chains like Pizza Hut, Subway and McDonalds increasingly gaining popularity in the international domains, it has been essential on part of the company to increase their competitiveness which needed cost effective production. However, the method taken by KFC to achieve that has been wrong and highly unethical. Recommendations The company, on ethical perspectives, need to focus not only on the utilitarian views of welfare maximization of the society but also needs to incorporate the notion that they are effecting the future generations in a negative way. The cultural relativism aspect of ethics has also to be considered since the company serves in different countries with different food habits and beliefs regarding the same (McMurrian and Matulich 2016). The company also needs to bring in more transparency in their framework as their advertisements still misguides the customers to a considerable extent. Conclusion From the above discussion, it can be asserted that corporate ethics has been gaining immense importance in the contemporary period with the international business structure becoming more integrated as well as complicated. In these aspects, ethical wrongdoings of companies, especially the internationally reputed large ones lead to immense negative implications not only on their clientele but also on the long-term prospects and reputations of the company themselves. Keeping this into consideration, Nike has been implementing positive changes and ethical considerations in its framework. However, KFC still lags behind in this aspect and they need to work more to come out clear of the allegations of ethical wrongdoings, which they have earned over time. For this robust ethical framework will be required in the infrastructure of both the concerned organizations, which can be able to incorporate the three Cs in business ethics, the compliance with the ethical regulations, the contribution t o the society as a whole and the consequences of the business operations. References Bazerman, M.H. and Gino, F., 2012. Behavioral ethics: Toward a deeper understanding of moral judgment and dishonesty.Annual Review of Law and Social Science,8, pp.85-104. Crane, A., Matten, D. and Spence, L., 2013. Corporate social responsibility in a global context. Daniel, T.A., 2013. Executive success and the increased potential for ethical failure.Society for Human Resource Management. DesJardins, J.R. and McCall, J.J., 2014.Contemporary issues in business ethics. Cengage Learning. Hartman, L.P., DesJardins, J.R. and MacDonald, C., 2014.Business ethics: Decision making for personal integrity and social responsibility. New York: McGraw-Hill. Hopkins, M., 2016.The planetary bargain: corporate social responsibility comes of age. Springer. James, K., Nikes Unethical Treatment of Overseas Factory Workers. Lawless, J., 2013. Kentucky Fried Transparency. McMurrian, R.C. and Matulich, E., 2016. Building customer value and profitability with business ethics.Journal of Business Economics Research (Online),14(3), p.83. Moore, G., 2012. Virtue in business: Alliance boots and an empirical exploration of MacIntyres conceptual framework.Organization Studies,33(3), pp.363-387. Nike.com (2018). [online] Available at: https://www.nike.com/ [Accessed 2 Mar. 2018]. Nisen, M., 2013. How Nike solved its sweatshop problem.Business Insider,9. Online.kfc.co.in (2018).Home | KFC. [online] Online.kfc.co.in. Available at: https://online.kfc.co.in/ [Accessed 2 Mar. 2018]. Pullen, J., 2016. Variables and Constants in the Theology of TR Malthus.History of Economics Review,63(1), pp.21-32. Reuter, C., Goebel, P. and Foerstl, K., 2012. The impact of stakeholder orientation on sustainability and cost prevalence in supplier selection decisions.Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management,18(4), pp.270-281. Sebastiani, R., Montagnini, F. and Dalli, D., 2013. Ethical consumption and new business models in the food industry. Evidence from the Eataly case.Journal of business ethics,114(3), pp.473-488. Sheehan, K.B., 2013.Controversies in contemporary advertising. Sage Publications. Trevino, L.K. and Nelson, K.A., 2016.Managing business ethics: Straight talk about how to do it right. John Wiley Sons. Trevino, L.K. and Nelson, K.A., 2016.Managing business ethics: Straight talk about how to do it right. John Wiley Sons. Wild, J.J., Wild, K.L. and Han, J.C., 2014.International business. Pearson Education Limited. Zhakypova, A., 2017. Dissecting corporate sustainability reporting: VW emissions scandal case.

Saturday, April 4, 2020

My Technical Description Is On My Dependable Coleman Flashlight. The C

My technical description is on my dependable Coleman flashlight. The Coleman flashlight is a hand-sized plastic flashlight, easily portable, which will fit into most automobile glove compartments. The Coleman flashlight has an overall length of 6 inches. It has a diameter of 2 inches at the head of the flashlight, and narrows to 1-1/4 inches in diameter at the battery compartment. The body of the Coleman flashlight, is basically cylindrical in shape, black in color, high-impact plastic, and ribbed for a secure hand grip. The Coleman flashlight consists of two major parts in which I will describe: (a) the body, containing the battery compartment and the switch, and (b) the bulb assembly, containing the reflector, the bulb, and the connector. The flashlight is powered by two 1.5 volt size C batteries. The body of the Coleman flashlight is 5-5/8 inches, with a diameter of 2 inches at the screw, or head end, narrowing to 1-1/4 inches at the battery compartment. The interior of the screw end is threaded, allowing for connection with the bulb assembly. The battery compartment holds the batteries, the power source for the flashlight. The compartment is cylindrical, 3-1/2 inches long and 1-1/4 inches in diameter, with a coiled metal spring on the interior of the closed end, and a 1/4-inch wide strip of gold-colored metal running along one interior side of the compartment. The compartment holds two 1.5-volt C batteries, in a stacked position, with the negative end of the lowermost battery in contact with the spring, and the positive end of the lowermost battery supporting the negative end of the uppermost battery. The open end of the battery compartment closes with the screw down insertion of the bulb assembly. The switch turns the flashlight on and off. The flashlight switch is located on the body of the Coleman flashlight 1-1/2 inches from the screw end. The switch is of round black plastic, designed to be activated with the thumb of the hand holding the flashlight. When the switch is pushed forward, towards the larger end of the flashlight, the light turns on. When the switch is returned back to the original position, pushed toward the smaller end of the flashlight, the light turns off. The bulb assembly of the Coleman flashlight consists of the reflector, the bulb, and the connector. When fully assembled, the bulb assembly is 2 inches long, with a diameter of 2 inches at the reflector end reducing to 3/4 inch at the contact end of the connector. The bulb assembly completes the flashlight by screwing into the larger end, or head end of the body of the Coleman flashlight. The reflector magnifies and projects the light generated by the battery powered bulb. When viewed from the larger end, the reflector consists of a transparent flat plastic cover over a chrome-colored reflective plastic concaved with a central hole. The elements are permanently attached together and housed in black plastic. The reflector screws into the connector on one end, and the midsection of the reflector provides the main screw for attachment to the Coleman flashlight body. The light source for the Coleman flashlight is a glass bulb, 1/2 inch long, permanently fused onto a cylindrical metal base 1/2 inch long and 3/8 inch in diameter. The bottom of the metal base has a protrusion, providing the electrical connection between the bulb and connector. The bulb itself contains a metallic filament, one-half the length of the glass portion of the bulb, surrounded, at a point halfway up the length, by a clouded white plastic-like material. The connector connects the reflector and bulb to the battery power source. The connector is of black plastic, ringed with a metallic collar 3/8 inch wide. The closed end of the connector is mounted with a 5/6 inch-square gold-colored metal strip. The metal strip facilitates the connection between the bulb and the batteries. The open end of the connector is threaded to allow joining with the bulb and reflector. When fully assembled, the Coleman flashlight is a sturdy easily held tool providing light sufficient for regular outdoor and emergency use. The compact size makes the flashlight easily portable, and batteries and bulb are readily accessible for replacement. Bibliography none

Sunday, March 8, 2020

Love canal environmental disaster essays

Love canal environmental disaster essays Everybodys come to town, Theyr building now a great big ditch, Those left we all do pity, Through dirt and rock so gritty, For well have a jolly time, They say twill make all very rich At Loves new Motel City Who live in Model City This tale I tell is no less true, Our boys are bright and well to do, Though in a silly ditty, Our girls are smart and pretty, They give free sites and power too, They can not help it nor could you, In Loves new Model City If you lived in Model City Then come and join our earnest band, Heres out heart and heres our hand, Water is a necessity for life. Throughout the growth of civilization, communities sprang up near the edge of waterways. Running rivers and standing lakes provided clean drinking water, food and energy for people. It was running water that set the gears working in the head of the charismatic entrepreneur William. T. Love. In 1890s, Love saw a 20000 acre community in Niagara county as his plot for his utopian Model City. Loves Model City would be located 7.5 miles away from Niagara River. A power canal seven miles long would connect the town with the upper and lower levels of Niagara River The channeled water would be lead to the Lewiston escarpment which would create a mini Niagara Falls thus creating a major power source for the Model City. This would create a great amount of hydroelectric power in a time which factories must be located near their power source. In January 1893, William Love went to Albany to politick for a charter for his model city. He did so by addressing both the senate and the assembly in a joint session, a first for a private citizen. A very liberal charter was granted which gave him the right to acquire by condemnation any necessary properties. (...

Friday, February 21, 2020

Impact of IT on TQM in an Organization Research Proposal

Impact of IT on TQM in an Organization - Research Proposal Example IT today is a vehicle for making substantial changes in organizations, markets and the economy (Lucas, 2001). The basic purpose of any organization is to either manufacture a product or to provide a service to its customers. An organization is divided into various functions as per the task they perform to achieve the organizational goals. Organizations use various technologies for achieving this goal. However, IT is different from these technologies. Figure 1 below describes the role of IT as per Harold Leavitt. As per this model, IT is the central link between all parts of an organization (Lucas, 2001). It has a separate existence from the other technologies used by the firm. Thus, we can see that IT has taken a central role in today’s organization. Some very big organizations have been pioneers in using IT to revolutionize the way processes are run. Chrysler is one such example. The company is an excellent example of ‘lean’ production, a methodology of production that has revolutionized the manufacturing industry. This production system required the company to work with approximately 1600 external suppliers that shipped materials to 14 car and truck assembly plants in North America (Lucas, 2001). The key to lean production is the Just-In-Time (JIT) inventory system. The company used IT to set up Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) for the efficient running of the JIT mechanism. This meant electronically linking all the suppliers to the company through the EDI and eliminating any manual or paper transactions (Lucas, 2001).