Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Nosocomial Infections

Recall your mom continually reminding you to wash your hands? We have all been advised to do as such at one point in our lives or another. As youngsters we hesitantly complied, not so much valuing the knowledge and love behind the announcement. For the majority of us, the estimation of hand cleanliness is shallow; a way to clean dirty, unattractive hands. We didn't know that washing our hands normally was an essential protection against numerous kinds of diseases.As a kid it was forced upon us by our folks, however as we developed more established, we understand its actual worth yet no longer practice it all the time, thinking that its badly arranged and an exercise in futility. Actually hand cleanliness is perhaps the best guard against ailments. The basic demonstration of washing and scouring our hands energetically with cleanser and running water is a viable shield against microbes borne contaminations. What's more, this is particularly valid for human services experts who are pre sented to microbes on a standard basis.People go to clinics and other social insurance foundations for clinical consideration and treatment of their sicknesses. Nonetheless, while the vast majority get well after an excursion to the emergency clinic, there are situations where individuals deteriorate due to presentation to hurtful microorganisms that have large amounts of these medical clinics. In medical clinics, microscopic organisms multiply in light of the high grouping of sick individuals at one spot at any one given time, and they can make auxiliary contaminations individuals heading off to the emergency clinic. These kinds of contaminations are gotten auxiliary to an emergency clinic visit or remain, and are called nosocomial infections.The Center for Disease Control (CDC) characterized nosocomial contaminations or human services procured contaminations as â€Å"infections that patients gain over the span of accepting treatment.† (Boyce, 2002, 29) And on the grounds th at these patients didn't at first harbor these nosocomial diseases, they could just have been obtained while in the medical clinic, while in contact with specialists and attendants who move between different wiped out patients. These medicinal services experts become the fundamental method of transmission for nosocomial diseases, and this is aggravated even particularly if specialists and attendants don't rehearse appropriate hand hygiene.It doesn't take a scientific genius to make sense of it. In emergency clinics, most patients are confined to bed, not permitted to move between various places. In this way, the danger of them straightforwardly tainting another patient is thin. Just specialists and medical attendants move about starting with one patient then onto the next, in steady physical contact with the patients. Since the hands are their primary concern of contact, the hands become the principle vehicle of microorganisms too. They â€Å"stick† to the specialists and med ical caretakers hands, and stay there until they are â€Å"dropped off† some place else.This process continues endlessly until the microscopic organisms locate a reasonable host, which is quite often, the human body. Inside the human body, these microorganisms will colonize and multiply, causing numerous kinds of medical issues. These transient, illness causing microscopic organisms utilize the skin as brief vehicles to get starting with one point then onto the next. In any case, in light of the fact that these organisms are transient and non-colonizing on the skin surface, they are handily expelled by appropriate and thorough hand washing with an enemy of microbial cleanser and water. Accordingly, legitimate hand washing can end the spread of sickness causing microscopic organisms in their tracks. On the off chance that specialists and medical attendants neglect to clean their hands, they become virtual safe houses for organisms, transmitting and causing nosocomial infection s.The figures are disturbing. Studies have indicated that one out of each 20 patients contract nosocomial contaminations in light of insufficient cleanliness rehearses in most American medical clinics. These nosocomial diseases â€Å"kill an expected 103,000 individuals in the United States a year, the same number of as AIDS, bosom malignant growth and car collisions combined.† (McCaughey, 2005, 1) The World Health Organization says that nosocomial or human services gained contaminations are one of the main sources of horribleness and death rates around the world. (Ducel, 2002, 7) And the entirety of this in light of filthy hands. And these passings and enduring are pointless. They can be effectively cured. On the off chance that each social insurance specialist would dependably rehearse appropriate hand cleanliness as they move starting with one patient then onto the next, â€Å"there would be a prompt and significant decrease in the spread of safe bacteria.†(Goldmann , 2006, 122)From each purpose of contact with patients, the hands of specialists and medical attendants are grimy, conveying disease causing microorganisms; and as specialists and attendants take care of their patients’ needs, these microscopic organisms move into the patients. While the greater part of these microscopic organisms can typically be fended off by the body, the undermined groups of patients previously debilitated by a current disorder become obvious objectives for these parasites, and nosocomial diseases can undoubtedly set in. What's more, in light of the fact that these diseases assault a feeble resistant framework, these can prompt increasingly genuine inconveniences and even death.As the fundamental vectors of nosocomial contaminations, specialists and medical caretakers can forestall the spread through proper hand-sterilizing systems. Hand cleanliness is the absolute most significant patient consideration practice that medicinal services suppliers can never really cross sullying and nosocomial contamination. Some may state that hand cleanliness is made excess by wearing of disinfectant gloves all the time. Be that as it may, regardless of whether specialists and medical attendants wear gloves, it will likewise be defiled if the hands are not perfect in any case. These gloves must be worn and expelled utilizing the hands, thus the pattern of sullying propagates itself in the possession of specialists and medical attendants with messy hands.The reason of hand washing is exceptionally straightforward and extremely successful. Organisms are parasites. They rely upon a host to live and replicate themselves. Nonetheless, microbes are not portable; they do have the way to move starting with one spot then onto the next. In that capacity, they rely upon outside assistance to move about and find new has to contaminate. This assistance comes as specialists and medical attendant, who in light of their numerous duties, neglect to clean their hands , or do so erroneously. The counter microbial property of cleansers in addition to the thorough contact of the scouring of the hands can without much of a stretch evacuate, debilitate, or even execute these transient, disease causing microorganisms before they can cause anybody any more damage. All things considered, a framework wide should be upheld, making appropriate hand cleanliness obligatory for all specialists and medical attendants. Hand cleanliness stations must be introduced all over medical clinics to make it simple for human services laborers to clean their hands anytime.Indeed nosocomial contaminations can correct a significant expense. In any case, what is significantly progressively heartbreaking about nosocomial contaminations is the way that it tends to be maintained a strategic distance from. These human services related diseases are superfluous disasters that can be effortlessly forestalled with legitimate sanitation and cleanliness procedures.Of course note that hand cleanliness or hand washing isn't sufficient. It must be done appropriately, following certain rules. It isn't sufficient to clean the hands; they should be purified. Typical or normal hand washing is equivalent to no hand cleanliness by any means. This implies hand washing must be done well, or not in the least since it doesn't have any effect to hurtful microorganisms or the strength of the patients. Hand cleanliness relies upon the case and the region of the clinic in question. Ordinary hand cleanliness ought to be accomplished for in any event a moment, with energetic scouring of the two hands against one another. Plain cleanser has been demonstrated to powerful against microorganism in light of the fact that the cleanser lifts the organisms off the outside of the skin to be washed off by running water.Hand cleanliness need not be muddled or exorbitant. Everything necessary is cleanser, running water, and erosion, and the order to do it routinely and appropriately. The key is to make it a propensity. There is no lack of proof indicating that hand washing is successful in ending the spread of diseases; the issue is that not very many individuals in the human services industry practice hand cleanliness in consistence with guidelines. Most wash their hands yet do so improperly, which is pointless in itself.While halting the spread of nosocomial contaminations is perplexing, there is no denying the way that the principal line of resistance against nosocomial diseases is hand cleanliness for medical caretakers and specialists. Straightforward adherence to legitimate cleaning/sterilizing strategies is all that is expected to keep unnecessary diseases from spreading any further and causing more mischief. It is only a question of discipline.First do no harm†¦ that is the proverb that all wellbeing laborers depend on. Ironicly medical caretakers and specialists ought to likewise be the principle vectors of nosocomial contaminations. These nosocomial disea ses are the disgrace of the medicinal services framework since it tends to be forestalled with dependable consistence to appropriate cleanliness techniques. The arrangement lies truly in our grasp. In the event that we don’t clean our hands, at that point it is messy with the unnecessary anguish and passing of patients from nosocomial contaminations. Our messy hands are liable hands.Works CitedGoldmann, Donald. â€Å"System Failure Versus Personal Accoutabilityâ€The Case for Clean Hands. New England Journal of Medicine. 355:121-3. 13 July 2006. 22 May 2007. for Disease Control and Prevention. (2006). Medicinal services Associated Infections (HAIs).  Retrieved March 17, 2007, from, G., et al., eds. Anticipation of Hospital Acquired Infections-A Practical Guide. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2002. 21 May 2007.â s/drugresist/whocdscsreph200212.pdfGorman, Christine. â€Å"Wash Those Hands† How specialists and medical attendants can make you debilitated †and what can be done. TIME. 163. 1. 29 March 2004: Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Thomas Gale. Pasco-Hernando Community College Lib., New Port Richey, FL. 23 May 2007.,9171,993710,00.h

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Jeremy Bentham : Father of Utilitarianism Essays -- Ethics Morals Phi

Survey the benefits of Utilitarianism (24 Marks) Utilitarianism is a hypothesis planned for characterizing one straightforward premise that can be applied when settling on any moral choice. It depends on a human’s normal sense to look for delight and maintain a strategic distance from torment. Jeremy Bentham is generally viewed as the dad of utilitarianism. He was conceived in 1748 into a group of legal advisors and was himself, preparing to join the calling. During this procedure nonetheless, he got frustrated by the state British law was in and embarked to change the framework into an ideal one dependent on the ‘Greatest Happiness Principle,’ ‘the thought that pleasurable outcomes are what qualify an activity as being ethically good’. Bentham saw that we are completely represented by agony and delight; we as a whole normally mean to look for joy and keep away from torment. He at that point concluded that the best good rule for overseeing our lives is one which utilizes this, the ‘Greatest Happiness Principle.’ This is the measure of generally bliss or despondency that is brought about by an activity ought to decide if an activity is correct or wrong. He expressed, ‘the most noteworthy joy of every one of those whose intrigue is being referred to is the privilege and legitimate, and just right and appropriate finish of human action’ Here Bentham is stating that the rule is the main legitimate of choosing and legitimizing our activities, that the rule ought to be applied paying little heed to any others, as it is the main valid and dependable method of characterizing whether an activity is correct or wrong. A favorable position of utilitarianism is that it very well may be applied to any circumstance. Dissimilar to numerous ethical methodologies you are not limited by rules, for example, ‘it is never right to lie,’ or ‘killing is never right.’ This permits the scholar to consider any predicament or issue in it’s own particular setting. For instance applying Kantian morals, fetus removal or killing would need to be characterized as off-base, anyway an utilitarian has the extension to settle on there own choice thinking about a scope of variables and circumstances. Bentham understood that since this hypothesis depends on the result of our activities it might be hard to evaluate reasonably which activity will deliver the most bliss. He consequently built up the ‘hedonistic calculus’, a type of computing the bliss coming about because of a demonstration by surveying 7 distinct components of the joy delivered, for example, power and span. In doing this Bentham was endeavoring to make a ... ...ilitarianism, similar to some other ‘list of rules’ way to deal with ethical quality can not be right in specific circumstances and urges individuals to aimlessly keep rules. Utilitarianism is a reality, not only a hypothesis like numerous different ways of thinking; it is rehearsed each day, for example the vote framework. This continuous act of utilitarianism in the public arena has show that it is imperfect. Because the majority vote in favor of something, doesn’t make it right. The majority can be tricked, as in Nazi Germany for instance, a huge number of individuals were behind Hitler despite the fact that his activities were verifiably malicious. Utilitarianism is an intelligent framework, yet it requires a type of essential, firm principles to forestall such gross shameful acts, infringement of human rights, and just clearly wrong thing ever being permitted. This could be the ‘harm principle’ which Mill conceived. ‘Acts of whatever sort, which, without legitimate reason, do mischief to other people, might be, and in the more significant cases totally require to be, constrained by the horrible assumptions, and, when needful, by the dynamic impedance of humankind. The freedom of the individual must be up to this point constrained; he should not make himself an aggravation to other people.’

Friday, August 21, 2020

Becoming a Princess

Becoming a Princess You see, the thing about Halloween is that it gives you a reason to act like youre in elementary school again. You wanna become Doctor Who? Go ahead.  You wanna go to class as a princess? No problem. Go trick-or-treating and mooch candy from all your GRTs? Aww yes. I, for one, opted for going to class as a princess. Let me explain. Im a fan of the TV show  My Little Pony. That makes me solidly a member of that group of fans called bronies, generously defined by Urban Dictionary as: A name typically given to the male viewers/fans (whether they are straight, gay, bisexual, etc.) of the My Little Pony show or franchise. They typically do not give in to the hype that males arent allowed to enjoy things that may be intended for females. Thats actually one of the best definitions Ive seen. The brony fanbase is arguably one of the most accepting social groups in existence, and seeing as the fanbase subscribes to a TV show that not only teaches fundamental values (the tagline is Friendship is Magic, for goodness sake) but does so in a witty, artful, and interesting way with well-developed and dimensional female characters. The animators and writers also throw in nods to our fanbasecheck out these background characters:     Thats right: meet, from left to right, Doctor Whooves, and The Dude, Donny, and Walter Sobchak from The Big Lebowski. In any case, I decided to become Princess Luna, one of the pony royalty of the world of Equestria. As her name suggests, shes patron of the moon and the night, and has some fascinating backstory that I wont spoil for you because I know youre going to go and watch MLP to find out for yourself ;) Doing a humanized (or gijinka) and male (or crossplay) costume of Princess Luna is an idea Ive been developing since maybe junior year of high school. Heres my original concept, and a picture of the character for comparison.     To really bring this to life, however, was a different story. I didnt want to permanently modify my clothes, for instanceId never have another use for a tie with Lunas cutie mark on it or a pair of jeans with a moon insignia. I also wanted the costume to be comfortable and fairly practical, and I wasnt sure I was up for dealing with a cape for an entire day of classes. I opted for painting a moon on a hankerchief instead, as well as exchanging the more formal tie-and-vest combo with a more streetwear-style denim jacket and v-neck tee. After scrounging around for supplies, I set to spray-painting. Spray paint with stencils, by the way, is possibly one of my favorite tools to use. Its delightfully messy, not very time consuming, and yields a nice, starry, splattery effect that cant quite be duplicated otherwise. Here are the t-shirt and hankerchief after painting:     And the final costume: General post-Halloween thoughts about the costume: Bandannas are super comfortable. As a habitual hat-wearer, wearing a bandanna had the same familar feeling but also allowed the wind to blow through my hair. It was very nice. I was criticized a couple times for wearing the infamous double denim. egin[snob] I personally feel that fashion rules are written to be learned, then broken. end[snob] This was a significant departure from my usual way of dressing in sweater over a button-up Oxford shirt tucked in neatly, so I did admittedly feel a little self-conscious all day. But hey, thats what Halloween is about, right? Feeling the stares and having the confidence to rock the look. Some of my more supportive friends told me I should dress like this every day. I maintain that Id be taken significantly less seriously by the entire world if I did so. Arguably, this is less of a costume and more of a Luna-inspired streetwear outfit. I suppose thats part of the difficulty of trying to dress up as human, male version of an animated magical pony. Maybe if I had costume wings and little pony ears? Maybe Ill get in touch with my cosplayer friends from high school and see what I can do. And another thing. Some of my friends decided the outfit needed a touch of  eyeliner  guyliner. This happened. Sorry-not-sorry for the selfie. Your friend in bronydom, Allan

Sunday, May 24, 2020

Factors That Impact Teacher Effectiveness - 2221 Words

Jacqueline Adams Dickey 03/11/14 EDUC 661 Literature Review The increasing focus by many policymakers and measurement experts on using statistical models to evaluate teacher effectiveness has led to heightened debate regarding the usefulness of these methods but little discussion of the possible sources of error inherent in value-added modeling. Even the most robust models for making high-stakes decisions about teacher effectiveness contain numerous sources of error that can lead to ill-founded interpretations of the data. Both teachers and schools can be negatively impacted by the errant use of value-added modeling; increased awareness of possible limiting factors present in these models is needed, both at the policymaker and at the†¦show more content†¦As of 2013, 43 states measure teacher effectiveness, at least in part, through student achievement; 25 of these states are in the process of instituting entire teacher evaluation systems that rely on student growth data to measure teacher impact (National Council on Teacher Quality, 2013). Within the larger classification of student growth measures is value-added modeling (VAM), a method that uses a statistical model to establish a causal link between teachers and the achievement of students within their classroom. VAMs are considered promising because, in a perfect world, they might have the potential to promote education reform and to create a more equitable accountability system holding teachers and schools accountable for the aspects of student learning that are attributable to effective teaching without burdening teachers and schools with responsibility for factors outside of their control. Value-added models are being used to evaluate teacher effectiveness in districts across the country, including New York City and Washington, D.C. Opinion on their potential for misuse and misinterpretation has been split, with some arguing that VAMs are inherently imprecise and ill-suited to measuring teacher effectiveness (Rothstein, 2008; Baker et al., 2010), while others posit that the possibilities for error are minimal (Kane and

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Elements of Proving Negligence Free Essay Example, 750 words

It is evidently clear from the discussion that the four elements of proof necessary for a plaintiff to prove negligence include the duty of care, breach of duty, injury, and proximate cause. Health care providers are charged with a duty to care for the patient(s) based on an established relationship between the patient and the care provider. However, the healthcare provider is not liable for any person who is not regarded as a patient in the capacity of the provider. The provider is expected to act in full capacity in ensuring that the patient s care needs are met, failure to which negligence may result. Breach of duty is realized when the care provider fails to meet predetermined care standards or even deviates from a commonly known competent professionalism. This malpractice is in most cases realized from hazards and /or risks associated with a given medical procedure. To avoid this malpractice, care providers often ensure that they make use of informed consents before performing medical procedures that are highly likely to result in a breach of duty. Failure to undertake care duty towards a patient by a care provider could also result in negligence. We will write a custom essay sample on Elements of Proving Negligence or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/page This complexity is caused by health care regulations, especially by the government. The functions and responsibilities of the governing board of a health care corporation include establishing corporation direction, ensuring that the corporation complies with the set regulations, addressing shareholder interests, providing advice and expertise to the corporation management, and ensuring that the long-term vision of the corporation is pursued.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

John Deer Case Study - 1238 Words

Mohamud Hassan DSC434 John Deere case study Due date 11/11/14 Early Supplier Integration in the Design of the Skid-Steer Loader Scott has been offered a new position as supply management manager for a new Deere amp; Company manufacturing facility of designed product skid-steer loader. As part of his new job, he must make a proposal to identify specific suppliers to integrate into skid-steer loader development process and specific ways to effectively integrate these suppliers in order to meet aggressive target costs. Scott faced many problems during his time at Deer and Company. For example, Scott is required to produce a proposal that outlines how the company is going to manage the early supplier integration into the design†¦show more content†¦Areas to focus | Not Important | Very Important | Product feature | 0 | 5 | Product range | 1 | 4 | Product delivery | 0 | 5 | Price | 1 | 5 | Not important =0 Very important = 5 It is very important the company focuses on the product features such as fuel efficiency, improve mechanical, and tires. Improving product features will help the company grow and produce quality products. The solution of the second problem that Deere amp; John is facing about market access strategy may not work smoothly as its excesses capacity because Scott was given for 24 months to run the entire facility fully operational. Also this will be very difficult for Scott and his company because the time frame that was given is short so that The reason of implementing supplier integration in the design and fabricating processes for Deere amp; John is to move towards a new business model to stay competitive in the increasing global competition. The other solution of the third problem is why the company needs to decide and find appropriate suppliers in different product? Deer amp; John planned to make their own facility and start producing their own product. The company wants to take back design and manufacturing of skid steer loader from the company whoShow MoreRelatedHunting Should Not Be Banned1499 Words   |  6 Pagesstrictly regulated hunting we have reintroduced and repopulated various game species into areas where they were previously wiped out due to extremely excessive hunting by settlers. In the early 1900s all of Indiana’s whitetail deer were virtually extinct. By the 1930s whitetail deer were beginning to be reintroduced into Indiana. In just 20 years after initial reintroduction the population was at a sustainable level so that regulated modern hunting programs could begin. Conservationism has been a necessityRead MoreTraditional Argument1359 Words   |  6 PagesIn 2011, there were 19,454 reported cas es of vaccine preventable diseases in the United States alone (Rouch 2011). Most of these cases could have been prevented simply by getting a vaccination for certain diseases. There has been much discussion in recent years over whether or not parents should have their children vaccinated. Parents hear a great deal of information in the medi about the effectiveness and side effects of vaccinations. After hearing all sorts of negative things about vaccinationsRead MoreArgument Against Evolution By Natural Selection1208 Words   |  5 Pagescharacteristics for their natural habitats and the extinction of those that lack the advantages (Rennie). For instance, in a herd of deer threatened by wolves, those who run fastest survive and those who do not run swiftly are hunted down and eliminated resulting in a herd of swift-running deer. However, no matter how long the process lasts, the deer will always remain a deer and never another species. For that reason, natural selection cannot cause the development of a new species, much less newRead MoreRacism Without Racists, By Jordan Peele797 Words   |  4 PagesThe concept art imitates life is crucial to film directors who express their views on political and social issues in film. In regard to film studies, race is a topic rare in many films. Like America, many films simply refuse to address this topic for various reasons. However, more recently, Jordan Peele’s 2017 box office hit Get Out explicates contemporary race relations in America. In the form of an unconventional comedy horror, Get Out is intricate in its depiction of white liberal attitudes towardsRead MoreEffects Of Pesticides On The Food Of The Public1457 Words   |  6 Pagesconserving biodiversity. A study done in North America suggests the range of wood volume yield gains from effectively managing forest vegetation using herbicides is 30-45% and even less in southeastern forests. Most of the 23 studies indicate a 30% increase in wood volume yield. (Wagner) Wood volume increased dramatically, yet many forest managers are concerned about how the usage of herbicides will affect the biodiversity of forests. However, the results of this study provide a positive outlookRead MoreBlack Dialect Essay1541 Words   |  7 Pagesachievements as well as their failures; numerous stories questioning the institution of slavery were produced here in American. Usually by reading the work of an author one is able to find a message or a moral hidden beneath the storyline. In most cases, authors dictate their writings in their culture’s dialect for many different reasons, many reasons of which that would not conclude them as being racist for using it. Black Dialect is used in many stories throughout American history. This dialectRead MoreRefrigerator Mother Theory600 Words   |  2 PagesRefrigerator Mother Theory. Initially, Leo Kanner (1943), a child psychiatrist at the Johns Hopkins University, introduced the term â€Å"early infantile autism† in 1943. He considered that the refrigerator mother triggered early infantile autism. In other words, he believed that the autism was developed after the birth, and lack of parental warmth triggered children to become isolated from the society. Consequently, those children who did not receive enough care exhibited autistic like feature, meaningRead More An Argument Against Racial Profiling Essay1129 Words   |  5 Pageson these definitions, I will show that racial profiling is unfair and ineffective because it relies on stereotyping, encourages discrimination, and in many cases can be circumvented. There have been many studies and case reports involving racial profiling, particularly racial profiling issues involving traffic stop and seizures. In a study done of reports on the stop-and-searches done on Interstate 95 in Maryland, it was found that 28.4 percent of black drivers and passengers and 28.8 percentRead MoreChildhood Vaccinations Essay1450 Words   |  6 Pageseliminate disease and counteract many life-threatening illnesses that once were responsible for killing thousands of children. According to researchers at the Pediatric Academic Society, â€Å"childhood vaccinations in the US prevent about 10.5 million cases of infectious illnesses and 33,000 deaths per year† (, 2012) The American Academy of Pediatrics state that â€Å"most childhood vaccines are 90-99% effective in preventing disease. When children who have been vaccinated do contract a diseaseRead MoreRisk Based Clinical Data Monitoring. Protocol Number: P123456.1737 Words   |  7 PagesR isk Based Clinical Data Monitoring Protocol Number: P123456 Title: A Safety and Efficacy Extension  Study  of Pertuzumab in Patients with Solid  Tumors Contract Research Organization Sponsor: Kunal Patel 360 Huntington Ave Boston, MA-02115 Table of Contents 1. Purpose 3 2. Introduction 3 3. Essential documents/Trial master file 7 a. Required essential documents b. Trial master file (TMF) c. Source documents d. Monitor’s role in essential document maintenance 4. Monitoring

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Case Study Of Nike and Kentucky Fried Chicken †Free Samples

Question: Discuss about the Case Study Of Nike and Kentucky Fried Chicken. Answer: Introduction The global commercial scenario has experienced considerable dynamics and changes in their operational framework with time. Over the year, with events like Globalization, liberalization of industrial sectors of different countries and with more and more businesses increasing their operational domain internationally, the ways of doing businesses have also changes considerably (Wild, Wild and Han 2014). Businesses no longer only involve the demand and supply side players but also have implications on the overall economic and social conditions of the countries. With the increasing expansion of the businesses in different domains, social responsibilities of the businesses across the globe have also increased. This in turn has incorporated the notion of ethics in the operational framework of business. The demand for moral and ethical behavior to be incorporated in the aspects of business communications, domestic as well as international, in order to increase the welfare of not only those who are directly involved in these communications but also of those who are indirectly affected, has encouraged the development of the concept of business ethics (Trevino and Nelson 2016). The field of business ethics addresses the morality, responsibility and sensibility in the actions taken by the businesses in order to ensure that to achieve their primary priority of profit maximization the companies do not hamper the well being of any individual or of the society as a whole. Often in their operations and corporate decision-makings, the companies face situations of ethical dilemmas, which involve difficult choices between economic profits and social performances of the commercial companies. The economic profits involve the revenue and benefits of the company itself. However, the social performances involve the measurement of the obligations of the companies to the people and societies as a whole (Moore 2012). Considering this, the concerned essay tries to analyze two real cases of corporate ethical dilemmas and wrongdoings, involving two multinational giants, the reputed sports wears and accessories, Nike and the globally reputed food chain of Kentucky Fried Chicken, in the light of the theories existing in the domain of business ethics (Bazerman and Gino 2012). Discussing the ethical dilemmas and wrongdoings on parts of the decision makers, the implications and influences of the stakeholders and also the behaviors of the companies the essay also tries to recommend the correct behavior for the same and tries to justify the same in the light of the business ethics framework. Case Study 1- Nike As discussed above, Nike is one of the predominant multinational companies operating in the domain of design and manufacturing of apparel, sports accessories, footwear and equipments. With its origin in the United States of America and with headquarter near Oregon; the company has its sales in all the corners of the world. The company has average annual revenue of nearly 34 billion USD and employs nearly 75,000 employees across the world (, 2018). With huge penetration in the sports accessories and apparel markets worldwide and with many high profile celebrities endorsing the brand, Nike is a known name among the global population in the contemporary period. However, in the last few years, the company has faced huge accusations and backlashes for allegedly running sweatshops in different developing countries. In other words, the company has been accused for shifting a major part of its production process in the developing and poorly developed countries, where they are accused of employing people at visibly low wages and in poor working conditions (Crane, Matten and Spence 2013). The company has also been accused of employing child labor in these countries and compelling their workers to work in environment detrimental to their health, which is considered as one of the greatest offense and breach in the corporate ethical framework. The problem, which Nike has been facing in this respect, indicates towards the emergence of ethical dilemma on part of the decision makers of the organization, which is elaborated in the following section. Problem areas The primary areas of concern in the operational framework of the company includes the presence of evidences of the company outsourcing their productions to the developing countries and not providing proper work environments to the domestic work force employed by them. Nike, in their factories provided work conditions to the workers, which were not at all as per the norms prevalent in the developed countries (Hopkins 2016). For instance, in some of the factories of the company in Korea and some other underdeveloped countries, the labors were made to work daily for seventeen hours, which is terribly above the conventional work hours. Apart from such labor hours and poor conditions, the wages provided to these labors by the company had been severely low and sometimes even lower than the amount needed for basic sustenance of their needs. These indicate towards the presence of immense exploitations of the cheap labors in the developing countries by such a reputed and multinational brand ( Zhakypova 2017). Another aspect in which the company has gained immense negative popularity is that they have always maintained steep prices of their products and has continuously engaged in promoting their products by getting high profile celebrities as the face of their company. These faces include celebrities like Tiger Woods and Michael Jordan, with the company spending millions of dollars for the promotional activities. Many on the other hand have highlighted these lavish expenses on the promotional activities on one hand and terribly low wages and poor working conditions for the employees and the company has earned huge criticisms around the world in the aspects of human rights (Nisen 2013). The issue of employing child labor in the countries with restrictions against employee unions was a deliberate strategy taken by the company, knowing that there would be fewer chances of agitations and strikes among the workers in those countries. The poor working conditions and lack of protections for the workers in the factories also led to many instances of breathing problems and skin problems among the workers, which is a huge violation of the basic human rights of the workers, on part of the multinational company, spending millions on advertisements and earning billions from their luxury products (James). Ethics: Theoretical Framework The actions and operations of Nike can be discussed in the light of the different theories existing in business ethics framework. Of these, the first theory is regarding the perspective of the social group. According to this concept, the decisions of someone or an organization do not solely depend on the same only but also depend on the social group in which he resides or to whom the same is answerable (Hartman, DesJardins and MacDonald 2014). In case of Nike, the social group can be considered as the employees, shareholders, consumers and different supply side contractors. These people living in different parts of the world, their perceptions of right and wrongdoing are also found to be different. For instance the wage paid by Nike to the employees in Korea may seem considerably low when measured from the perspective of the USA, but the cost of living of the former is also visibly low compared to the latter. The profit maximizing and rigorous expanding strategies of Nike can be explained with the help of the Egoism Theory in ethics, which states that the organizations or any individual have the right to place their own interests as the foremost priority in their rational decisions. Nike did the same, in order to ensure high revenues such that the money could be used for their further expansion of businesses and for venturing in other unexplored markets of the world (DesJardins and McCall 2014). This, though having negative implications on the workers to a considerable extent and on the reputation of the company in the eyes of human rights activists, however, helped the company to become one of the biggest multinational companies in the international scenario. Ethical Dilemmas The company, in its operations has faced several serious dilemmas and also have in some instances engaged in wrongdoings from the ethical perspectives which need to be highlighted. The first ethical dilemma faced by the company has been on the aspect of outsourcing their manufacturing activities to the developed countries. This has helped the company to maintain a high profit margin and also contributed positively in creating employment scopes in those labor rich but economic growth lacking countries (Reuter, Goebel and Foerstl 2012). However, in doing this, the company is held responsible for taking away considerable scopes of employment from its home countries and the company has also been accused of exploiting the cheap labors in the low developed countries by paying them sub standard wages and providing them with work environments much inferior than the conventional norms of the developed world. Another ethical dilemma faced by the company has been that of the tradeoff between huge expenses in the promotional activities and usage of the same money for the skill development of the employees and their overall welfare. While the former is expected to contribute in making the company globally popular, thereby increasing their sales and revenues, the latter is expected to create a healthy and motivated workforce for the company and in increasing the goodwill of the same in the eyes of the societies. Nike however chose to stick to the former, thereby letting go the opportunity to contribute to the humane aspects of the countries where they have established their manufacturing units (Daniel 2013). Recommendations The company has taken several steps in order to address the ethical issues cropping up in its operational framework, especially after these issues got global media attentions, which led to destruction of the goodwill and reputation of the company considerably in the international scenario. The company has already taken amending measures so as to come out of the accusations of running sweatshops in the under developed countries taking the privilege of their deprivations and less awareness in general (McMurrian and Matulich 2016). However, there are still several aspects which the company needs to emphasize upon. In this context, the theory of Utilitarianism can be referred to, which works under the notion that the greatest good is that good which is for the greatest number. Taking this aspect of ethical consideration into account, the company needs to invest more on the social and humane grounds of empowering their employees, not superficially, but in all the aspects of their life (Pullen 2016). Nike needs to concentrate more on building an inclusive corporate culture within the company itself to clarify its values; in order to bring more respect for all the cultural and ethnological diversities the company has in its workforce, in order to manage their operations efficiently and more ethically in future. Case Study 2- Kentucky Fried Chicken Like that of Nike, the Kentucky Fried Chicken is one of the leading fast food chains, having its origin in the USA and enjoying a worldwide operational domain and sales of their product, especially different varieties of fried chicken for which the company is internationally known. The company, having its headquarters in Louisville, Kentucky, currently enjoys the second position in terms of food chains, just after McDonalds and has its outlets in almost 20,000 locations across more than 123 countries in the globe. It also creates employment for thousands of people in these locations and the company enjoys average revenue of nearly 23 billion USD (, 2018). However, in spite of its immense popularity among the global population, especially the children, the young age clusters, and its increasing sales across different countries of the world, there have been several serious ethical issues, which the company has been facing in the last few years, which have also led to considerable criticisms of the company (Trevino and Nelson 2016). The primary criticisms of the company regarding its ethical wrongdoings have been based on the accusations against the company for allegedly using unhealthy ingredients and products to make their fried chickens (Sheehan 2013). On one hand, evidences have been found against KFC, of using oil containing Trans fat and on the other hand the company has also been accused of cruel chicken farming and of using unnatural methods like injections and chemicals on the chickens to increase the cost efficiency of their production process. Problem Areas One of the primary problem areas in the ethical framework of the company is the usage of oil containing trans fat in most of the products made and sold by the company in all parts of the world. This becomes even a bigger issue in the contemporary period, with more and more people realizing the negative effects of unhealthy eating and adapting to healthier lifestyles. Apart from oil, the other ingredients used by the company to make their products tasty and more appealing in the eyes of the youth, also contains substances which are not considered to be healthy in conventional standards (Sebastiani, Montagnini and Dalli 2013). However, KFC, in none of its promotions or advertisements has mentioned about the type of oil they use or the ingredients, which they add. In addition, the calorie content of their products and the negative implications, which they can bring on the consumers, especially the children, are not mentioned by KFC in any of their promotional activities. Apart from the above-mentioned problem, the company has also been accused of unethical handling of the animal resources, which is one of the serious offenses in the business ethics framework globally. The chicken suppliers of the company have been accused multiple times of keeping chickens in poor conditions and overcrowded cages. They have also been accused of using unfair means like drugs and chemicals to make the chickens heavier in order to increase the cost efficiency (Lawless 2013). The multinational company has also supported these activities in order to increase the revenues and profits considerably. The company has also been accused of keeping this information hidden from their clientele, which indicates towards severe negligence on part of the company in terms of the health and welfare of the customers. Ethics: Theoretical Framework The unfair means adopted by KFC can be considered extremely unethical from all the perspectives of the ethical framework existing in the contemporary business scenarios in the world, as it is involved direct adverse implications on the consumers, which also includes elderly people, women, children and youth. Their actions can be to somewhat explained from the Egoism perspective only. This perspective highlights the presence of rights in the hands of individuals or the organizations to take decisions keeping in front their own benefit first. However, the Egoism theory does not validate the activities of hampering the welfare of other people in order to increase its own benefits, which have been done by the company over the years (Jenning 2014). Ethical Wrongdoing The ethical dilemma, which the company faced and which led to the wrongdoing on part of the company, has been due to the tradeoff between the economic profits, competition and social reputation, which the company has been subjected to. With other food chains like Pizza Hut, Subway and McDonalds increasingly gaining popularity in the international domains, it has been essential on part of the company to increase their competitiveness which needed cost effective production. However, the method taken by KFC to achieve that has been wrong and highly unethical. Recommendations The company, on ethical perspectives, need to focus not only on the utilitarian views of welfare maximization of the society but also needs to incorporate the notion that they are effecting the future generations in a negative way. The cultural relativism aspect of ethics has also to be considered since the company serves in different countries with different food habits and beliefs regarding the same (McMurrian and Matulich 2016). The company also needs to bring in more transparency in their framework as their advertisements still misguides the customers to a considerable extent. Conclusion From the above discussion, it can be asserted that corporate ethics has been gaining immense importance in the contemporary period with the international business structure becoming more integrated as well as complicated. In these aspects, ethical wrongdoings of companies, especially the internationally reputed large ones lead to immense negative implications not only on their clientele but also on the long-term prospects and reputations of the company themselves. Keeping this into consideration, Nike has been implementing positive changes and ethical considerations in its framework. However, KFC still lags behind in this aspect and they need to work more to come out clear of the allegations of ethical wrongdoings, which they have earned over time. For this robust ethical framework will be required in the infrastructure of both the concerned organizations, which can be able to incorporate the three Cs in business ethics, the compliance with the ethical regulations, the contribution t o the society as a whole and the consequences of the business operations. References Bazerman, M.H. and Gino, F., 2012. Behavioral ethics: Toward a deeper understanding of moral judgment and dishonesty.Annual Review of Law and Social Science,8, pp.85-104. Crane, A., Matten, D. and Spence, L., 2013. Corporate social responsibility in a global context. Daniel, T.A., 2013. Executive success and the increased potential for ethical failure.Society for Human Resource Management. DesJardins, J.R. and McCall, J.J., 2014.Contemporary issues in business ethics. Cengage Learning. Hartman, L.P., DesJardins, J.R. and MacDonald, C., 2014.Business ethics: Decision making for personal integrity and social responsibility. New York: McGraw-Hill. Hopkins, M., 2016.The planetary bargain: corporate social responsibility comes of age. Springer. James, K., Nikes Unethical Treatment of Overseas Factory Workers. Lawless, J., 2013. Kentucky Fried Transparency. McMurrian, R.C. and Matulich, E., 2016. Building customer value and profitability with business ethics.Journal of Business Economics Research (Online),14(3), p.83. Moore, G., 2012. Virtue in business: Alliance boots and an empirical exploration of MacIntyres conceptual framework.Organization Studies,33(3), pp.363-387. (2018). [online] Available at: [Accessed 2 Mar. 2018]. Nisen, M., 2013. How Nike solved its sweatshop problem.Business Insider,9. (2018).Home | KFC. [online] Available at: [Accessed 2 Mar. 2018]. Pullen, J., 2016. Variables and Constants in the Theology of TR Malthus.History of Economics Review,63(1), pp.21-32. Reuter, C., Goebel, P. and Foerstl, K., 2012. The impact of stakeholder orientation on sustainability and cost prevalence in supplier selection decisions.Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management,18(4), pp.270-281. Sebastiani, R., Montagnini, F. and Dalli, D., 2013. Ethical consumption and new business models in the food industry. Evidence from the Eataly case.Journal of business ethics,114(3), pp.473-488. Sheehan, K.B., 2013.Controversies in contemporary advertising. Sage Publications. Trevino, L.K. and Nelson, K.A., 2016.Managing business ethics: Straight talk about how to do it right. John Wiley Sons. Trevino, L.K. and Nelson, K.A., 2016.Managing business ethics: Straight talk about how to do it right. John Wiley Sons. Wild, J.J., Wild, K.L. and Han, J.C., 2014.International business. Pearson Education Limited. Zhakypova, A., 2017. Dissecting corporate sustainability reporting: VW emissions scandal case.