Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Whitman's Song of Myself and The Nature of Life Identifying the mystery of existence, Whitman writes "Song of Myself," section six to question the nature of the life of man. He alludes to and confronts past answers to this query by utilizing as his central image the leaves of grass. In the Christian tradition, the Bible utilizes this image of grass to describe the lives of men. Isaiah, a prophet of God cries out, "All men are like grass . . . and all their glory is like the flowers of the field. The grass withers and the flowers fall, . . . but the word of the Lord stands forever" (Isaiah 40:6-8). The scriptural image of men as grass, "the handkerchief of the Lord," places man in relation to God and establishes the transient, finite nature of man. Whitman responds throughout this poem to the Biblical answer to the question of life. Emphasizing the cyclical process of nature, Whitman constructs his poem to insist that the life of man, as in nature, moves not with linear progression, but rather in a cyclical succession. Birth and death, Whitman asserts, serve not as bookends to a concise life span, but rather as connections in a larger continuum of existence. Whitman utilizes an imagist technique relating a series of associated images through a central connection. Whitman first presents the reader with the image of a small child offering up grass with the question, "What is the grass." In light of the scriptural connection Whitman provides, this query "What is the grass" from the lips of a child presents the larger question of what is man. Whitman chooses not to answer this question directly, but rather to present possibilities and proffer the question back to the reader, stating "How could I answer the chil... ...ot ceased to exist but rather now continue their existence "alive and well" in the ambiguous "somewhere." Whitman will not accept the Biblical understanding of death as a passage to either heaven or hell. He claims instead that "to die is different from what any one supposed, and luckier." This fortuitous death he would apply to every man, not reserving destruction for any man. Death, if it truly exists, for Whitman, leads only "forward to life, and does not wait at the end to arrest it." Stating "All goes onward and outward . . and nothing collapses," Whitman affirms the view of man's earthly life as a succession rather than a progression and claims for man a part in a larger cyclical continuum of existence. Works Cited: Whitman, Walt. Song of Myself. The Heath Anthology of American Literature. 3rd ed. Ed, Paul Lauter. Boston,NewYork: Houghton Mifflin, 1998.
Posted by Unknown at 6:53 AM
Monday, August 19, 2019
The Language of Gender, Race, and Class Sustains Power Born into the world, Homo Sapiens inherit a mythology through language and ideas justifying their place in that world. Mythology is an invisible mental world that supports the physical world. Language may be an apparatus for surviving experience, but it only gives the individual mental analogies of reality. Language is not value free; language has political power implications inherited from its popular mythology. These political power implications are most accentuated in a society by race, class, and gender archetypes. Though gender shares no apparent attributes with race and class, in mythological terms the archetypes are interrelated. Gender, race, and class archetypes are inherited mythological terms that define an individual?s political relationships. Political relationships are the masterminds initiating the slave minds into operation. Mythology changes the apparent binary master slave relationship into the three different paradigms of gender, race, and class, each archetype having peculiar identifiers for the master slave relationship in the popular American Mythology. A philosopher should examine the language of master slave relationship archetypes, the effects of this language on mythology, and describe how these archetypes effect society, to ascertain why gender is interrelated with race and class. ?In the beginning (arche: beginning, power, rule) was the word (logos: word, speech, story, argument, reasoning).? John 1:1 Language (logos) has constructed a reality based on master slave relationship. In American Mythology the use of the word ?God? signifies a male creator. In this ontology, the female is considered temporal and emotional, and the male is considered divine and rational. Color takes the similar value system, dark is night and is irrational, light is day and rational. Property is a realm of God, more property cumulated, more power of God the individual possesses. In a world that bases power on technology, reason becomes power transferred into property, which survives the individual existence. Language articulates an inherited patriarchal and racial hierarchy based on sex and skin color, with light skin mastering dark skin in social relations, just as an individual masters property or God masters the earth. Hence, the language that builds mythology justifies the master slave relationship.
Posted by Unknown at 10:34 AM
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Montana 1948 by Larry Watson - Metamorphosis from Child to Adult Maturity may come at any age and time in a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life. One moment he or she may be a carefree child, and then suddenly realize that they have been transformed into a mature adult by a powerful and traumatic experience. An experience they will remember their whole lives. Young David Hayden, the narrator of Montana 1948 by Larry Watson, has a traumatic experience. He discovers that his uncle has been sexually assaulting Native American women in his town. This is a heavy burden for a twelve year old boy, especially since it reveals that his beloved Uncle Frank is the "bad-guy". However, one discovers, as the novel develops, that David matures and grows in order to deal with this situation. He must come to understand what has happened and how the immoral actions of Frank will affect his family and its name. But most importantly, he must know that his integrity will be changed. He will learn shocking things that would mean nothing to a child, but everything to an adult. Lar ry Watson suggests that traumatic experiences transform children into adults. Therefore, disturbing experiences lead to changes of mind, growth in morals, and an emerging sense of adulthood. David changes his mind about Uncle Frank through the traumatic experiences regarding the discovery of FrankÃ¢â¬â¢s secret actions. Uncle Frank used to be DavidÃ¢â¬â¢s idol and David adored him. But that all changed when DavidÃ¢â¬â¢s housekeeper and baby sitter, Marie Little Soldier, becomes violently ill and is in need of a doctor. Wes Hayden, DavidÃ¢â¬â¢s father, calls his brother Frank, who is the town doctor, to come and see her. Strangely enough, Marie Little Soldier refuses to be alone in the room with Frank. Later on, Marie tells DavidÃ¢â¬â¢s mother horrible things that Frank has been doing to Native American women. DavidÃ¢â¬â¢s mother, Gail, tells Wes as David overhears. She says, Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬ËWesley, your brother has been raping these women. These girls. These Indian girlsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢ [David states] I was beginning already to think of Uncle Frank as a criminalÃ¢â¬ ¦Charming, affable Uncle Frank was gone for good'; (47, 49). David always thought goodly o f his uncle, until he heard these ghastly statements. All the attractiveness and appeal of Frank dissipated once David learned of his filthy behavior. David knew this information would change him forever. He takes anoth... ...mily and his parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ well being, emotionally. David exemplifies this and stands by his family when they are in need. He does not desert them or feel shameful. He stays loyal and true to those he cares for and loves. Thus, he has shown his ability to act as an adult would. One can never be too sure when the innocence of childhood is lost, the sure thing is that everyone becomes an adult eventually, and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s when they lose their innocence. In many cases, this change from child to adult is a harsh one, often it is the realization that the world is not perfect. The shootings at Columbine is just one example. Those children were faced with the severe reality that death does not apply only to older people, but to anyone in the world. This revelation caused many of them to cease their immaturity and become an adult. And it was a very difficult task for many of them. One must be careful for corruption rears its ugly head where you least expect it. The loss of innocence signifies a personÃ¢â¬â¢s metamorphosis from a child to an adult. Therefore, it is the events and happenings in life that trigger this change. Work Cited Watson, Larry. Montana 1948. Milkweed (New York)1993
Posted by Unknown at 2:16 PM
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Abstract This paper is a research proposal which seeks to address the potential that youth workers have in reducing anti-social behaviour. This proposal seeks to take a case study approach to anti-social behaviour whilst utilising a number of governmental policies and practices which exist across a wealth of social work areas and youth work practice areas. Introduction The practice of youth work takes place within a trusted part of the spectrum of social work provision (Dept. for Education and Skills, 2005). The history of youth work can be traced back to the late 1880s and can found within an informal voluntary religious setting (Infed, 2014). It was, however, the Albemarle Report (Ministry of Education, 1960) which concretised the service within societal dynamics and within youth cultures. Within this approach a defined route to what youth work should incorporate, as well as highlight its role, was highlighted. Recent years, however, has seen the service being impacted by changes brought about through altered central government policies (Courree, 2012). During this time, youth work services has been subject to reform and has been incorporated into the auspices of the Integrated Youth Support Services (Infed, 2014), and utilised as a tool for reducing anti-social behaviour Recent years have seen anti-social behaviour become a dominant issue in com munity relations. Within their detached roles, it can be considered that youth workers have the potential to improve social dynamics and to reduce instances of anti-social behaviour. However the extent to which youth workers can effect change needs to be addressed. Background and Rationale for the study Youth work is a contested area of social work provision and its professional definition has been affected by a series of wider ranging work practices (Infed, 2014). Sercome (2010) also agrees that what constitutes as youth work is not an easy task but he produces a list of roles that are akin to that of both Infed (2014) and the National Youth Agency (2014). These roles serve to define youth work as a process which Ã¢â¬Ëhelps young people learn about themselves, others and society, through informal educational activities which combine enjoyment, challenge and learningÃ¢â¬â¢ (National Youth Agency, 2014: n.p.). However, it is also evident that youth work also takes place within the modern social work context of multi agency practices. This outcome places youth workers at the centre of the plethora of criminal and social policies that are designed to counter anti-social behaviour. Detached youth work is a distinctive form of social work which interacts with young people using constructive dialogue and within the spectrum of personal and social development (Federation for Detached Youth Work, 2013). This form of youth work utilises principles of informal education in order that young people can be engaged in order to address a number of issues that exist in their lives. As a result youth workers now operate in a more robust legal framework which incorporates a multitude of legislative criteria and partner agencies, this can include but is not limited to, law enforcement agencies, education services, housing trusts, social services and medical services. This perspective is particularly applicable where knife crime as well as other forms of anti-social behaviour, are considered. Anti-social behaviour became an issue for the incumbent Blair administration in 1997. The Labour party manifesto for that election claimed that Labour wanted to see Ã¢â¬Ëcommunities that are safeÃ¢â¬ ¦ (and)Ã¢â¬ ¦ where mutual respect and tolerance are the order of the dayÃ¢â¬â¢, adding, Ã¢â¬Ëthese are things we must achieve together as a countryÃ¢â¬â¢ (Labour Party, 1997: n.p.). As a result the Labour Government drafted the Anti-Social Behaviour sytem and incorporated programmes such as the Respect Agenda, which included a task force and related action plans (Millie, 2009). Youth workers play a central role in reducing anti-social behaviour. In the Tower Hamlets areas of London, anti-social beahviour conttitues to dominate local service provision and underpinning policies.The administartive wings of the area have been criticised for not resolving cases quickly (Tower Hamlets Homes, 2012). Similarly it is noted that the area is one of the most prevalent in London for instan ces of knife crime (Citizen Report UK, 2013). Knife crime has long been associated as being a criminal activity which is predominately carried out by young people (11 Million, 2009), and as such, falls within the remit of youth work. It is to be noted that youth workers may come into contact with service users who are engaged in anti-social behaviour on a regular basis whose behaviour is being dictated by a social, emotional or behavioural disorder. Cefai and Cooper (2006) argue that such a premise is not uncommon and argue that these conditions are a persistent factor in anti-social behaviour. They argue that these conditions are Ã¢â¬Ëcharacterised by their effect of being socially disruptive or disruptive to the development course of the individual (Cefai and Cooper, 2006: 18). McVie (2010) highlighted that there was a correlation between instances of, and the prevalence of poverty, low self esteem, knife crime, and gang membership. Within this narrative a number of associative links between what constitutes as being delinquent or anti social behaviour and knife crime. An earlier report by 11 Million identified a similar number of sociological factors which will aid a young person to turn to anti-social behaviour, and in particular knife crime. However McVie (2010) noted that those young people who can be classed as being persistent knife carriers consisted of only a small percentage of the overall knife carrying population. AS such it can be argued that knife crime occurs within two very distinct groups; persistent offenders and occasional offenders (McVie, 2010). Within this the aforementioned sociological and behavioural incorporation of low educational levels, behavioural issues and deprivation can be considered to be a factor. At this point it is worth remembering that Tower Hamlets is one of the poorest areas of London. As such there is a correlation between academic theory, statistics and environmental reality. Indeed this is a factor which 11 Million (2009) detected. Further to this a subsequent report, the Kinsella Report (2011), highlighted poverty as being a contributory factor in the perpetuation of this particular anti-social behavioural act. Aim and Objectives of the Study The aim of this study is to investigate and examine the roles of youth workers and assist the reduction of anti-social behaviour in the Tower Hamlets borough of London. To do so the proposed study has three main aims; Define anti-social behaviour in context with social exclusion and social work practice Identify and explain the current roles of youth workers in assisting authorities in combating anti-social behaviour. Assess the efficacy of contributory elements of knife crime in order to assist the wider youth work sector in helping reduce anti-social behaviour In responding to these tree aims, it is proposed that the question of what role can Youth Workers play in Reducing Anti Social Behaviour will be addressed. Literature Search Strategy The literature review will primarily involve the collection, collation and analysis of previous primary and secondary data sources and studies. These studies will be sourced from a number of online academic databases and will include statutory reports, academic research studies, state policy documentation and other regulatory statements as well as responses from professional bodies. In addition to this, the incorporation of secondary data such as academic perspectives and media sources will provide for a review of the discourse that resides within this area of debate. In effect, data sources of this type can be classified as multiple data sources. Here it is to be noted that multiple source datasets are capable of being interrogated, broken down and reclassified into specific policy and practice areas as well as time based datasets (Cohen, Mannion and Morrison, 2013). In essence, it is proposed that the approach being utilised for this research is based upon desk based research. Stud ies of this type can also known as descriptive research studies and involve a number of research areas that are related to the issues surrounding this particular study area (Cohen, Mannion and Morrison, 2013). Ethics and anti-oppressive practice considerations Since this paper is based upon a methodology which utilises descriptive research it will not require the involvement of participants within any subsequent research. As such, there are no ethical guidelines relating to the management or safety of participants. However it is to be remembered that descriptive research studies are subjective and it is possible that the inclusion of a number of case studies, or examples, can be influenced by personal perspectives and biases (Cohen, Mannion and Morrison, 2013). It is to be noted however, that every step will be taken to ensure that this issue does not impinge upon the study; this includes conscious or unconscious bias. Project outline Chapter one will consist of the introduction; this will include relevant background information, rationale, methodology, scope and constraints as well as overviews of the literature review. Additionally it will include an abridged findings section. Chapter two, the literature review, will consist of a review of primary and secondary resources. This will include, but not limited to, regulatory frameworks, state policies, professional literature and previous academic research studies. The third chapter will focus upon the Tower Hamlets area of London from a case study perspective. Within this Chapter, the level of anti-social behaviour, youth work initiatives, responses and results will be considered. This case study will be compared against information raised within the literature review in order to inform best practice in this area. the analysis section, will counteract the initial findings from the literature review and assess these against further data in order to assess how youth workers can help reduce anti-social behaviour. The final chapter, the findings of the study, will highlight where and how, if any, youth workers can help reduce anti-social behaviour. This chapter will also provide a series of recommendations for further research. Project timetable Weeks 1 Ã¢â¬â 4: Identification, collection and collation of primary and secondary sources in order to inform the literature review. Weeks 4 Ã¢â¬â 8: Literature review, first and second draft. Weeks 9 Ã¢â¬â 10: Finalise literature review and investigate areas for service provision in relation to reducing anti-social behaviour. Weeks 10 Ã¢â¬â 12: Findings section, first and second draft Weeks 12 Ã¢â¬â 14: Finalise the analysis chapter in order to highlight areas for recommendations for youth work service changes in order to address issues related to anti-social behaviour. Weeks 14 Ã¢â¬â 15: Complete findings and recommendations chapter. Weeks 15 Ã¢â¬â 16: Complete the first, introductory chapter. Week 17: Publish the final research study. Bibliography 11 Million, (2009), Young people, and gun and knife crime: a review of the evidence, London: Centre for Crime and Justice Annetts, J., Law, A., McNeish, W., Mooney, G., (2009), Understanding Social Welfare Movements, Bristol: Policy Press. Cefia & Cooper, (2006), Social, Emotional and Behavioural difficulties in Malta: An educational perspective, (J), Journal of Maltese Educational Research, Vol. 4 (1), pp. 18-36. Citizen Report UK, (2013), London Knife Crime Offences by Borough 2007 to 2013, (online), available at http://www.citizensreportuk.org/news/2013/06/25/london-knife-crime-offences-by-borough-2007-to-2013/, (Accessed on 25/11/14). Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K., (2013), Research Methods in Education, (5th edition), London: Routledge Falmer Courree, F., (2012), The History of Youth Work in Europe: Relevance for Youth Policy Today, Volume 3, Strasbourg: Council of Europe. Dept. for Education and Skills, (2005), Targeted Youth Work: A Guide, London: HMSO. Federation for Detached Youth Work, (2013), What is Detached Youth Work?, (online), available at http://www.detachedyouthwork.info/more_about_detached_youth_work.htm, (accessed on 23/10/14). HM Government, (1983), Mental Health Act (1983), London: HMSO. HM Government, (2003), Every Child Matters, London: HMSO. HM Government, (2004), Children Act (2004), London: HMSO. HM Government, (2005), Mental Capacity Act (2005), London: HMSO. HM Government, (2013), Anti-Social Behaviour, (online), available at https://www.gov.uk/asbo, (accessed on 23/10/14). Infed, (2014), what is Youth WorkExploring the History, Theory and Practice of Work with Young People, (online), available at http://infed.org/mobi/what-is-youth-work-exploring-the-history-theory-and-practice-of-work-with-young-people/, (accessed on 23/10/14). Kinsella Report, (2011), Tackling Knife Crime Together: A Review of Local Anti-Knife Crime initiatives, London: HMSO. Labour Party, (1997), New Labour: Because Britain Deserves Better, (online), available at http://www.politicsresources.net/area/uk/man/lab97.htm, (accessed on 22/10/14). McDonald, R., (1997), Youth, The `UnderclassÃ¢â¬â¢ and Social Exclusion, London: Routledge. Millie, A., (2009), Antisocial Behaviour, Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill. Ministry of Education (1960) Albemarle Report: The Youth Service in England and Wales, London: HMSO. National Youth Agency, (2014), What is Youth Work?, (online), available at http://www.nya.org.uk/about-nya/what-is-youth-work, (accessed on 23/10/14). Poverty.org, (2012), Poverty indicators: Relative poverty, absolute poverty and social exclusion, (online), http://www.poverty.org.uk/summary/social%20exclusion.shtml, (accessed on 23/10/14). Priory Group, (2012), Behavioural, emotional and social difficulties (BESD), (online), available at http://www.priorygroup.com/Conditions/Specialist-Education-and-Fostering-Conditions/Behavioural-emotional-and-social-difficulties-BE.aspx, (accessed on 23/10/14). Sercombe, H., (2010), Youth Work Ethics, London: Sage. Tower Hamlets Homes Anti Social Behaviour Service, (2012), Anti-Social Behaviour: EverybodyÃ¢â¬â¢s Business, London: Tower Hamlets Homes.
Posted by Unknown at 5:58 PM
Friday, August 16, 2019
Social stratification is the structured form of social inequality within a ranked group of people that bring about unequal financial rewards, such as a personÃ¢â¬â¢s income, and power or property, which is brought upon by wealth in a society. The social stratification systems come in many different ways and forms. For example, slavery, castes, social class, race, and gender are just some of the issues that are affected by stratification. This essay will particularly focus on the issue of stratification by gender, or in other words, gender inequality.Gender inequality or also known as gender stratification, is the unequal distribution of a societyÃ¢â¬â¢s wealth, power, and privilege between females and males. (Scott and Schwartz, 2000). When the issue is approached, it is evident that the majority of the women are the oppressed as in turn the men being the oppressor. This idea of the oppressed vs. the oppressor is evident throughout history; even in religious terms, some can date back to GodÃ¢â¬â¢s creation.For example, in the Bible, God had caught Adam and Eve eat from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, which was forbidden. It is written in the Bible, Ã¢â¬Å"To the woman he (God) said, I will greatly increase your pain in childbearing; with pain you will give birth to children. Your desire will be for you husband, and he will rule over you. Ã¢â¬ (Genesis 3:16). Around the mid-nineteenth century until nowadays, three beliefs about women and men have prevailed as part of biology or evolution. One, men and women have different psychological and sexual natures, two- men are inherently the dominant or superior sex, and three Ã¢â¬â both male female difference and male dominance are natural. Ã¢â¬ (Bem, 1993). Considering these three beliefs, women experience gender inequality in different environments, stereotypes, and occupations. For example, women are stereotyped to be only a stay at home wife and to be in an environment where they are respo nsible for cleaning the house, cooking dinner, and taking care of the children.Nowadays, there are more women known to have jobs and not a stay at home wife, but yet they are still responsible, or show some responsibility for cleaning the house, cooking dinner, and taking care of the children. As for occupations among women, they experience the limitations of the occupations available. Women also experience less pay or earnings, and the devaluation of their work by society. An article, Social Class and Gender, written by Nancy Andes, expresses occupational stratification by gender inequality through the comparison of three theoretical frameworks or perspectives.The first theoretical framework is the sex segregation model, which is where sex is the only characteristic that affects the placement of a worker into a profession or occupation. The second theoretical framework is the pure class model, which is where the workersÃ¢â¬â¢ position of determined by their status or position in the society and how much authority and ownership they possess. The third theoretical framework that is used is the integrated gendered social class model, which is where gender and class perform together that affect the positioning of women and or men in the labor force.After Andes introduces the three theoretical frameworks, she explains each frameworks or approaches in depth, in relation to a table that expresses the earnings and occupations of men and women. The source of the table, or known as empirical evidence, is taken from the UC Bureau of the Census in 1989. The table expressed many different types of employment in the labor force. Within that employment of occupation, the table included the percentage of women within that occupation, womenÃ¢â¬â¢s annual earnings within the occupation, and even the menÃ¢â¬â¢s annual earnings in that same occupation. Read also: Our Changing Society
Posted by Unknown at 9:39 PM
The deterioration of the environment by natural or human forces is known as environmental degradation. Natural happenings like heavy rain, floods, storms, earthquakes, volcanoes etc. are not under human control and they play havoc with environment time to time by making the land unfit lor cultivation. Here man is helpless. He can do nothing except to see the havoc. But when man himself plays a vital role in degrading the environment in which he lives, and then the problem becomes more serious. Needless to say that environmental degradation is one of the major global issues. The overuse of resources is it land or water and the industrialisation process are the major causes of this phenomenon. Man has been felling the tress for his various purposes. He never minds if this process goes on without check it will lead to soil erosion, floods, silting of irrigation canals and cultivated lands, which finally degrade our environment. Our population is increasing fast, which has also degraded the environment to a great extent. ManÃ¢â¬â¢s insatiable needs and distress have disturbed the whole environmental equilibrium. The race of armament among countries is no less responsible for this global issue. Apart from these our industries emit smoke and discharge liquids including polluted water. The smoke contains many undesirable gases such as carbon monoxide and sulpher dioxide. All borne particles in solid, liquids and gaseous form. The pollution in atmosphere has tendency to form their layers and sinks in atmosphere. The chlorofluorocarbons which come from aerosol sprays nuclear weapons, refrigerators etc., have caused a hole in the ozone layer of atmosphere. This hole is allowing increased amount of ultraviolet radiation reaching our earth. The above mentioned factors have really degraded the environment and if ways to check it are not applied we will have face serious consequences. We must put an end to our ir satiable needs and desires. There must not be indiscriminate cutting of trees because it will lead to ecological imbalances. Instead, we should know the value of tree plantation and should plant trees as many as we can in our surrounding area. Next, our ever growing population must be checked because it puts an extra burden .on our natural resources. Last but not the least, factories should not be allowed to emit large quantities of harmful effluents into air through their chimneys. They should discharge them into the rivers aid other water bodies because this dirty water can be treated aid recycled to be used again. Our environment must be protected by all means. We must realise the fact that so long environment is there, our life is there. The day, when there is no environment, there will be a complete doom.
Posted by Unknown at 1:21 AM
Thursday, August 15, 2019
Taking into account the nature of historical truth, it cannot be viewed from absolutist position, but rather from relativist perspective. The values, dictated by the certain epoch, determine the purpose and the context of history, so there is a number of historical biases (again, from modern viewpoint) in the writings, describing and explaining the past experiences. The paper is designed to focus on the main historical biases and highlight the influence of modern media on the construction of new biases. Due to the fact that there is a plenty of historiographic schools, one can presume that each of them chooses specific symbol or aspect as a baseline and develops its argument through certain prism. In this sense, the book by Edwars Said, Ã¢â¬ËOrientalismÃ¢â¬â¢, to great extent emphasizes the faultiness of Western historiographic approach to the diametrically opposite culture. The scholar writes: Ã¢â¬Å"The Orient is not only adjacent to Europe; it is also the place of EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest and richest and oldest colonies, the source of its civilizations and languages, its cultural contestant, and one of its deepest and most recurring images of the OtherÃ¢â¬ (Said, 1979, pp. 1-2). Orientalism therefore comprises the historically biased attitude towards the cultural Ã¢â¬ËothernessÃ¢â¬â¢, so the author concludes that eastern studies cannot be completely independent from the polarization and confrontation between the two civilizations. Furthermore, social stratification determined the status of certain individual in society and consequently resulted in the creation of Ã¢â¬Ëmiddle classÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËaristocraticÃ¢â¬â¢ approach to making historical notes, and, more importantly, religious approach had been predominant in this sense over more than a thousand years the issues related to heresy and Inquisition contributed to medieval historiography, whereas the social protest against religious dogmas was an overall Western historiographic framework in the 18th -20th centuries. Both approaches naturally distorted objective reality in an attempt to fit it into narrow Procrustean bed of sociopolitical context. Furthermore, it is important to keep in mind that the purpose of history hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t been static over the societal developmental course Ã¢â¬â it has altered a number of times Ã¢â¬â from the simple glorification of the certain rulerÃ¢â¬â¢s deeds to the formation of public consciousness and stereotypes. Historians, as the members of society, naturally shared most stereotypes and social convictions , even writing purely Ã¢â¬Ëfor the sake of historyÃ¢â¬â¢. Nowadays, historical biases are close-knit to the issues, which arise in connection with social, gender and racial equality, so the modern media are concentrating on covering these issues and determining public opinion. Information therefore is presented is extremely available manner, which allows remembering the content of the article without any Ã¢â¬ËunnecessaryÃ¢â¬â¢ reflections or more profound analysis. The Ã¢â¬ËrawÃ¢â¬â¢ information (news, editorials) has attractive cover, so the digestion and informational metabolism have been enhanced over the last century, whereas the description of events still remains biased in terms of the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s political and social position, or personal views. On the other hand, the freedom of printed word prohibits the misrepresentation of facts, yet the interpretation of certain data still may vary among journalists Ã¢â¬â this principle is widely used to put the most appropriate and suitable emphases, thus except the provision of recent news, media are responsible for creating images, persuading public and imposing certain moral or ethical evaluation of the event or phenomenon (for more utility and convenience, from the position of Ã¢â¬ËrightÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËwrongÃ¢â¬â¢). To sum up, it is impossible to eradicate historical biases Ã¢â¬â historiography, like all descriptive and analytical sciences, follows relativist principles of Ã¢â¬ËminorÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËmajorÃ¢â¬â¢ truth. Nevertheless, with regard to high availability of historical writings, one has an opportunity to analyze the positions of several historiographic schools and draw more independent conclusions.
Posted by Unknown at 5:03 AM